Cage Fish Farming and Culture
This FIRM is a importer and supplier of the product / security devices in contact basis in the market.
It is situated at Markandeswar Sahi, Puri (Odisha) 752001.
ABOUT FISH FARMING IN CAGE/CAGE CULTURE
Cage/Pan culture are same. Where as term cage used for sweet water fish farming that time term Pan used for brakish/Sea water fish farming.
Cage culture started during 1800 Century in South East Asia in the fresh water of Lakes & rivers of Kampuchi. Marine fish farming in cages started during 1950 in Japan. Since 1970 in Thailand cage culture techniques started. Large scale cage farming has been established in Kenia and Malaysia since 1980. Also the cage culture established and developed into a successful aquaculture industry in Philippines in 1990. The origin of cage culture goes to Sung dynasty who started it in river of yangtze, Chaina. Then it goes to lake and reservoirs and then to marine water. Such types of farming in running water is high yield and great efficiency.
CAGE CULTURE IN INDIA: Cage culture is an age old practice in India but it is not so famous among fish farmers. Govt. of India implemented all India Co- Ordinated Research Project on cage and Pan Culture. Using Pangasius SP Cage technology in reservoirs, the results are very encouraging. AP, Tamilnadu and Maharastra have tested floating cages of 6M (L) X 5M (H) X 4M (W) in size and have got production per cage upto 8000 to 10000Kg. Production cost is Rs.35 to 45 per Kg and sale price is Rs80 to Rs.90 per Kg. Very good scope is there in future. By using this technology fish production can be enhanced Because there are vast reservoirs in India, have a combined surface area of 3.25 Million hectares (excluding marine surface) mostly in the tropical zone, which is country’s most important inland water resource with huge untapped potential.
ABOUT CAGE CULTURE: Like other sources of fish farming, the cage or pan is a system of fish farming, in which fishes are confines in mesh enclosure. The cage retain the fish making it easier to feed, observe and harvest. The cage also allows the water to pass freely between the fish and surrounding water resource, thus maintain good water quality and remove the wastes. For last 15 years, cage culture has been spread throughout the world to more than 35 countries in Europe , Asia, Africa and America. The cage made of materials like nylon, plastic, polyethylene and steel. Which are more expensive but have a longer life span and permit better water exchange and have super ceded wood and bamboo cages. These are floating type and constructed either from wood, bamboo, steel or plastic pipes supported with synthetic fiber net, oil drums uses for floating. Cages/Pans are usually floated in rafts and anchored to the lake/reservoir/river bottom or connected to shore by a wooden walkway. The nets are attached to posts set at every few meters and bottom of the net is pinned to the substrate with long wooden pegs. Pans are usually built in shallow waters 3-5 mtrs deep and 1-50 ha. in size. Whereas fixed and floating cages are used in rivers and streams
ADVANTAGES OF CAGE/ PAN CULTURE :
• Flexible resource uses :- Cage culture can be established in lakes, ponds, mining pits, rivers and still Sea.
• Low Capital investment :– Construction of cage culture is less expensive for construction of large scale aquaculture methodology.
• Simple feed and simple fish care practices :- In cage culture fishes can be directly observed with their behavior, feeding etc.
• Multi uses of water resources :- The husbandry of fish in Cages should not hinder the other users of water those pursuing fishing, boating and swimming etc.
• Feeding :- Feed must be nutrient and fresh. They should not take natural food except manufactured diet. The feed must be necessary proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals for growth.
SITE SELECTION AND WATER QUALITY FOR CAGE CULTURE:
Before Setting a cage culture, chosen water should support the biological demand of the area. Different sites like lakes, rivers, reservoirs, ponds, Quarries, Streams, ocean & water logged low lying costal and Chilka area etc are fit for cage culture.
The criteria required:-(1) The surface area should be minimum half acre or more than it for pan culture (2) water level should be at least 6 feet deep. Fluctuating water level during summer should remain 2 to 3’ (3) The cage area water should be good quality & wind blows across it. (4) The cage area will be connected with an all weather communication facility. (5) Temperature is important factor in controlling life of fish, growth, reproduction and survival of fish. (6) PH/acidity of water is causes of slow growth, death, reduction, reproduction, increase and disease etc. (7) Turbidity (the degree to which light penetrates the water) reduces by muddy water. It also reduces the oxygen levels and effects the fishes. (8) A healthy phytoplankton bloom/Turbidity (Green water) has visibility of 15 to 24 inches or more. Visibility less than 12” shows low dissolved oxygen. Visibility less than 6” is critical . (9) cage culture carried out in still water but minimum water current (10-20 Cm/See) has a good effect on oxygen supply of fish. The current helps to remove the solid wastes from the cage. High velocity current flowing is disadvantage for cage culture.
TYPE OF CAGE : There are 4 types of fish rearing cage, namely
(1) Fixed cage
(2) Floating cage
(3) Sub-Merged cage and
(4) submersible cage.
The cages are in different diameters ranging from 2 mtr to 15 mtrs. It designed for shrimps, crabs, lobsters, Sea bass etc. CMFRI has developed open Sea cages of 6mtrs dia and 15 mtrs dia for grow out of fish and within the limits of fish farmer. All these are Extensive, intensive and semi-intensive types.
CAGE FRAMES AND NETS : Different cage materials are used for cage farming, like High Density poly Ethylene (HDPE) Nets, GI Pipes, PVC pipes etc. HDPE is expensive but long lasting. CMFRI has recommended the Nets for cage culture. Like braided and twisted HDPE nets can be used for more than two seasons. The depth of net is ideal as 2 to 5mtrs. For open sea cage predator net is recommended to prevent the attack of predatory organism.
CONDITION FOR CAGE CULTURE :
Conventional fish farming is known to all but the cultivation of fish in fresh water and salt water in cage in a controlled manner is not known to all. Cage aqua culture differs from open aqua culture. In cage the fishes are contained in an artificial enclosure that places in water:-
(1) The right choice of site selection is a key factor,
(2) Proper feeding with quality feeds,
(3) periodic monitoring and cleaning of cages
(4) Management of cage
(5) Free flow of water in cage
(6) Cage should be made with floating frame that net materials and mooning system (with rope, buoy, anchor etc) with round or square shape
(7) A cat walk and handrail is built around a battery of floating cages
(8) The system is suitable on India’s long coast line
(9) Vast brackish water area for which investment is low and requirement of land area is nil is an good alternative income source to poors
(10) Man and Woman can manage it.
PRACTICAL ACTION :
The cages are several types have a top cover to prevent fish jumping and escaping or being caught by birds because the cage floats, it can be installed in any depth of water can be accessed even in times of flood with a capacity of one cubic meter, the cage can hold up to 300 fish fingerlings at a time. Fish farmers use cages like this for two growing seasons each year. The fish can be fed on nothing more than scraps and waste, rice bran and snails and in few months the fish grows to full size. Then they produce more and more fish. As cage culture is a best option for women groups and farmers without land of own. For prawn culture in cage a 120 days period is sufficient to grow out of prawn /shrimp in cages in sweet water/brakish(shallow) water or salt water. In general, longer period produces larger Prawns that may get higher market prices. Farming prawns together with Tilapia fishes in sweet water is more beneficial and for both the food quality, type and quantity is one and same. So Tilapia can grow with shrimp feeding at a time.